Πέμπτη, 17 Απριλίου 2014

All the Places Around the World That Ban Dolphin Captivity

The movement within the marine park industry to discontinue keeping cetaceans in captivity is growing all over the world. Progressive countries no longer keep cetaceans in captivity, clearly recognizing that these animals belong in the vast open seas. Here is a short review of the recent history about this issue.


Based on article written by David Kirby at takepart.com

http://on.fb.me/1r1KY7H
1.- Bolivia
The Bolivian government made history in July 2009 by enacting the world's first ban on all animals in circuses and other public performance venues. The law was passed following an investigation by the U.K.’s Animal Defenders Internationall, which found widespread abuse in Bolivian circuses, according to The Guardian.

2.- Chile
Chilean law was amended in January 2005 to prohibit the capture or import of any cetacean species, “for public exhibition or any other objective associated to its utilization by man.”

3.- Costa Rica
The government of Costa Rica decreed new cetacean regulations in July 2005, making it  “strictly forbidden” to catch and kill marine mammals, keep cetaceans and other marine mammals captive, or touch, feed, or trap any marine mammal.

4.- Croatia
In July 2009, Croatia’s State Institute for Nature Protection enacted a regulation banning the keeping of cetaceans in captivity for commercial purposes. The decision was made following a study which recognised the adverse effects of dolphinaria and captivity on these wild animal species. The only exemption would be for the rehabilitation and return of sick or injured animals to their natural environment.

5.- Cyprus
The nonprofit group Animal Responsibility Cyprus (ARC) won a campaign to ban the importation of cetaceans in June 2011. The group says it was also successful in shutting down the Ayia Napa dolphinarium, the only one in the island nation, in 1999. Subsequent applications to open captive dolphin shows were refused by the authorities. In spite of Cyprus being a popular holiday spot, you will not see any so-called dolphinariums here. 

6.- Greece
A campaign by Animal Defenders International [i] and the Greek Animal Welfare Fund, backed by over 50 local animal protection groups across Greece [i], prompted the Greek government to enact a ban, in February 2012, on not only dolphin captivity but the use of ALL animals in circuses. Greek law now forbids using animals in "recreational games, car racing platforms, musical concerts, exhibitions, fairs or other artistic or entertaining festivities". In January 2014, the law was overwhelmingly upheld [i] by Parliament following a challenge by the Attica Zoological Park in Spata.

7.- Hungary
In 1992 five former military dolphins from the former Sovjet Union were flown to Hungary for public display. Very soon two of them died, two others were reported floating apathetically on the pool’s surface while the fifth animal continued to perform for crowds. Concerned witnesses contacted animal welfare activists to organize veterinarians to examine the animals. There was also a significant media response to the horrible conditions of the dolphins’ confinement. It was also revealed that these marine animals were being held in fresh water. The three surviving dolphins were confiscated soon after these revelations and, in spite of their ordeal, managed to recover and were returned to Ukraine, their country of origin. This sad story was the starting point for a long-running campaign to bring about a ban on the trade in bottlenose dolphins from the Black Sea – which was finally achieved in 2002. Since then, there have been no more captive dolphins held in Hungary.

8.- India
On May 20, 2013, India’s Ministry of Environment and Forests banned the keeping of captive dolphins for public entertainment (see the links 1 and 2). A statement from B.S. Bonal of the Central Zoo Authority declared that cetaceans do not in general survive well in captivity. “Confinement in captivity can seriously compromise the welfare and survival of all types of cetaceans by altering their behavior and causing extreme distress,” he said. The ministry even declared that dolphins “should be seen as ‘non-human persons’ and as such should have their own specific rights.” 

9.- Nicaragua
On Feb. 2, 2003, Jorge Salazar Cardenal, then Nicaragua’s minister of the environment, confirmed in a letter to the World Society for the Protection of Animals that his country had “banned the use and exploitation of bottlenose dolphins indefinitely.” Salazar added that the law “guarantees that in Nicaragua, these animals will be fully protected.”

10.- Slovenia
According to Whale and Dolphin Conservation (WDC), Slovenian law “explicitly prohibits” the display of captive dolphins.

11.- Switzerland
The country’s House of Representatives handed a major victory to captivity opponents when it outlawed the “keeping of dolphins in aquariums or for entertainment purposes” in March 2012. The Swiss Senate also banned the importation of dolphins. Meanwhile, the last two dolphins remaining in the country were sold to a facility in Jamaica in December 2013.

 

United States

 

California
On Feb. 24, 2014, a proclamation declaring that all dolphins should have the right to freedom was passed by the Malibu City Council and subsequently signed by Mayor Joan House. “Whales and dolphins are known to be highly intelligent and emotional creatures,” it declared, “and therefore deserve the right to their own freedom and lives.” On March 6, California state Assemblymember Richard Bloom made international headlines by introducing the Orca Welfare and Safety Act, which would make it illegal to “hold in captivity, or use, a wild-caught or captive-bred orca for performance or entertainment purposes.” The bill would also ban captive breeding and artificial insemination of captive killer whales in California. On April 08, a vote on this bill was delayed by 18 months, pending an interim study. But, if it passes, California will join a growing list of U.S. states and localities and at least 14 countries that have outlawed the captive display of orcas, dolphins, and in some cases, all wild animals.

New York
State Sen. Greg Ball surprised anti-captivity activists by introducing a bill, in February 2014, to ban “the possession and harboring of killer whales in aquariums and sea parks” in the state. On March 25, the Senate Standing Committee on Environmental Conservation voted in favor of the bill. New York has no captive orcas, but the symbolic measure is nonetheless being closely watched by animal welfare activists.

South Carolina
In 1982, activist Mark Berman, now at the Earth Island Institute, home to Ric O'Barry's Dolphin Project, helped pass the first and only U.S. state law to ban marine mammals in captivity. In 2001, state officials amended the law, limiting protections to just cetaceans after Riverbanks Zoo in Columbia announced plans for a sea lion exhibit. “We will work very hard to defend the law if there’s any attempt to change it further,” Berman said in November 2013.

Hawaii
When a developer proposed, in 2002, to construct a dolphinarium at a Maui shopping center, the Pacific Whale Foundation and other groups successfully lobbied the Maui County Council to ban the display of any captive whale or dolphins.


Others

A few countries have standards so strict that it is nearly impossible to keep cetaceans in captivity, including Brazil, Luxembourg, Nicaragua, Norway, and the United Kingdom, where the last dolphinarium was closed in 1993. No company has been able to open in the U.K. since then, "because imposed standards exceed the viability of establishing a dolphinarium in the country". 

In Armenia, the first and only dolphinarium has been closed following completion of its operation term. The dolphinarium building is currently being dismantled, with dolphins taken back to Ukraine after the last performance on February 9, 2013, the dolfinarium director Lilit Sahakyan told PanARMENIAN.Net. Ever since its opening, the dolphinarium activity had been widely criticized by ecologists who suggested that dolphins weren't provided with normal conditions and could go blind because of chlorinated water.

Unfortunately, more than 2.100 dolphins and whales are still being held in captivity at 343 facilities in 63 countries around the world, with the highest numbers of dolphinariums located in Japan (57), China (44), the United States (34), Russia (24), and Mexico (24), according to the Born Free Foundation. In Europe, a total of 15 Member States currently have 34 captive dolphin facilities (dolphinaria) displaying about 300 small whales, dolphins and porpoises.


Source: takepart.com --  yahoo.com -- Posted also here


WINNING THE CASE AGAINS CRUELTY


DAVID KIRBY (1, 2, 3) is the author of the New York Times bestseller Evidence of Harm, and Animal Factory, an acclaimed investigation into the environmental impact of factory farms. His latest book is Death at SeaWorld.  


"I didn’t even know orcas were dolphins. I just hadn’t thought about it... And when I saw they die in captivity at much greater rates – that was it.” The more he learned, the more involved he became. Read more at Animal Book Club: Interview with David Kirby










Relative Articles - Links

  • Η ΒΟΛΙΒΙΑ ΓΙΝΕΤΑΙ Η ΠΡΩΤΗ ΧΩΡΑ ΣΤΟΝ ΚΟΣΜΟ ΠΟΥ ΑΠΑΓΟΡΕΥΕΙ ΤΗΝ ΕΚΜΕΤΑΛΛΕΥΣΗ ΟΛΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΖΩΩΝ ΣΤΑ ΤΣΙΡΚΟ: solon.org.gr
  • Bolivia Bans Wild and Domestic Animals in Traveling Circuses: ens-newswire.com
  • The Science on Suffering: Findings of investigation presented to the Bolivian Congress together with a report from Animal Defenders International on the scientific evidence of suffering of animals in traveling circuses. Click here to read or download. 
  • Croatia bans keeping whales and dolphins in captivity: endcap.eu
  • Croatia has now prohibited the keeping of whales and dolphins in captivity: bornfree.org.uk 
  • Croatia Bans Keeping Whale And Dolphins In Captivity: us.whales.org 
  • Stop Circus Suffering campaign in Greece: ad-international.org [Note: On January 2014, following a challenge by the Attica Zoological Park over its dolphin displays, the Ministry of Rural Development & Food considered revising the ban to exempt the establishment. But finally Common sense prevailed and the parliament voted in favour and upheld the ban but this demonstrates that we must remain ever vigilant.]
  • THANK YOU GREECE: Fb
  • Attempt of the Ministry of Rural Development to bring back wild animal shows in zoos: Fb
  • India bans captive dolphin shows, says dolphins should be seen as ‘non-human persons’ : treehugger.com
  • Capture and transport is inarguably stressful and dangerous for cetaceans, say officials in India: takepart.com
  • Nicaraguan government bans dolphin exploitation: eurocbc.org 
  • Freedom! Switzerland Bans Dolphins in Captivity: takepart.com
  • Following votes in both houses of parliament, the keeping of dolphins or whales in Swiss zoos or waterparks will be forced to come to an end: swissinfo.ch
  • SWITZERLAND: Fb
  • A proclamation declaring that all dolphins should have the right to freedom was passed by the Malibu City Council: malibutimes.com
  • California Lawmaker to Propose Ban on Orcas in Captivity: takepart.com
  • A bill that would ban keeping orca whales in captivity in New York passed on Tuesday, March 2014: thedodo.com 
  • Marine mammal law in South Carolina protects whales, dolphins for now (November 2013): postandcourier.com
  • There are currently no captive whales or dolphins in the United Kingdombornfree.org.uk
  • In the European Union (EU), there are 34 captive cetacean facilities across 15 countries : bornfree.org.uk   
DAVID KIRBY is the author of 'Evidence of Harm,' which was a New York Times bestseller, winner of the 2005 Investigative Reporters and Editors (IRE) award for best book, and a finalist for the New York Public Library Helen Bernstein Award for Excellence in Journalism, and 'Animal Factory,' an acclaimed investigation into the environmental impact of factory farms which NPR compared to Upton Sinclair’s classic work 'The Jungle.' His latest book, 'Death at SeaWorld,' was previewed by Library Journal, which wrote: “Lives are at stake here, and Kirby can be trusted to tell the story, having won a passel of awards for his investigate work.” Booklist called the book “gripping” and “hard to put down.” - See more at: http://deathatseaworld.com/?author=1#sthash.O2U5E43Y.dpuf


Thank you for reading!



ΕΝΘΕΤΟ

Deaths, drugs, distress: why marine parks are losing their attraction
Κατά 15% μείωση παρουσιάζει η επισκεψιμότητα στα θαλάσσια πάρκα της SeaWorld, από τον περασμένο Ιανουάριο, γεγονός το οποίο αποδίδεται στο ντοκιμαντέρ Blackfish. Το ντοκιμαντέρ αυτό έκανε γνωστή στο ευρύ κοινό την τεράστια ταλαιπωρία και υποβάθμιση που υφίστανται οι όρκες και τα δελφίνια, όταν κρατούνται στην αιχμαλωσία για να εξυπηρετήσουν αυτόν τον παρωχημένο τρόπο διασκέδασης, ενώ 1,2 εκατομμύρια άτομα υπέγραψαν την αίτηση που ζητά την απαγόρευση των παραστάσεων στην Καλιφόρνια. Ο πρόεδρος της SeaWorld San Diego, John Reilly, ισχυρίζεται ότι η ταινία δεν βασίζεται στην επιστημονική αλήθεια, αλλά προσπαθεί να επηρεάσει αρνητικά τον κόσμο μέσα από συναισθηματική ευαισθητοποίηση και προπαγάνδα, και ότι οι παραστάσεις έχουν εκπαιδευτική αξία, καθώς μπορεί να αποτελέσουν "πηγή έμπνευσης" για το κοινό.

"Κάθε άλλο παρά πηγή έμπνευσης είναι η υποβάθμιση και ο εξευτελισμός αυτών των ζώων, στις παραστάσεις", δηλώνει ο επικεφαλής της οργάνωσης Born Free Foundation, Will Travers. Σύμφωνα με την οργάνωση αυτή, περισσότερα από 2100 κητώδη διατηρούνται, σήμερα, σε αιχμαλωσία, σε 343 επιχειρήσεις, σε 63 χώρες, σε ολόκληρο τον κόσμο. Ο μεγαλύτερος αριθμός δελφιναρίων σημειώνεται στην Ιαπωνία, στην Κίνα, στις Ηνωμένες Πολιτείες και στο Μεξικό. Τα περισσότερα δελφινάρια της Βόρειας Αμερικής όμως, έχουν πλέον βρεθεί στο στόχαστρο περιβαλλοντικών οργανώσεων που ασχολούνται με την προστασία και την διατήρηση της άγριας ζωής, ενώ ήδη έχουν αρχίσει και οι πρώτες νομοθετικές ρυθμίσεις προς την κατεύθυνση της απαγόρευσης. Η υποβάθμιση της ευζωίας των κητωδών και οι ασθένειες που σχετίζονται με το στρες, είναι το κύριο επιχείρημα στο οποίο βασίζεται το αίτημα για την απαγόρευση της αιχμαλωσίας τους.

"Δεν κατηγορούμε τους επιχειρηματίες και τους φροντιστές ότι κακοποιούν τα ζώα, δηλώνει η νευροεπιστήμων του πανεπιστημίου Emory, Dr Lori Marino. Πολλά θαλάσσια πάρκα κάνουν ό,τι καλύτερο μπορούν για να φροντίσουν τα ζώα τους και να τους παρέχουν κτηνιατρική περίθαλψη. Το πρόβλημα όμως βρίσκεται στην φύση αυτών των ειδών: Τα κητώδη δεν μπορούν να προσαρμοστούν στην αιχμαλωσία. Ευζωία για τα αιχμάλωτα κητώδη δεν μπορεί να υπάρξει. Περισσότερο απ' όλα υποφέρουν οι όρκες, οι μπελούγκες ταλαιπωρούνται επίσης, ενώ τα ρινοδέλφινα τα καταφέρνουν λιγάκι καλύτερα, χωρίς αυτό να σημαίνει ότι και αυτά δεν εξακολουθούν να αρρωσταίνουν και να πεθαίνουν πρόωρα από ασθένειες που σχετίζονται με το στρες της αιχμαλωσίας".

Διαβάστε περισσότερα στους παρακάτω συνδέσμους: theguardian.com, todayonline, independent.co.uk
DAVID KIRBY is the author of 'Evidence of Harm,' which was a New York Times bestseller, winner of the 2005 Investigative Reporters and Editors (IRE) award for best book, and a finalist for the New York Public Library Helen Bernstein Award for Excellence in Journalism, and 'Animal Factory,' an acclaimed investigation into the environmental impact of factory farms which NPR compared to Upton Sinclair’s classic work 'The Jungle.' His latest book, 'Death at SeaWorld,' was previewed by Library Journal, which wrote: “Lives are at stake here, and Kirby can be trusted to tell the story, having won a passel of awards for his investigate work.” Booklist called the book “gripping” and “hard to put down.” - See more at: http://deathatseaworld.com/?author=1#sthash.O2U5E43Y.dpuf
DAVID KIRBY is the author of 'Evidence of Harm,' which was a New York Times bestseller, winner of the 2005 Investigative Reporters and Editors (IRE) award for best book, and a finalist for the New York Public Library Helen Bernstein Award for Excellence in Journalism, and 'Animal Factory,' an acclaimed investigation into the environmental impact of factory farms which NPR compared to Upton Sinclair’s classic work 'The Jungle.' His latest book, 'Death at SeaWorld,' was previewed by Library Journal, which wrote: “Lives are at stake here, and Kirby can be trusted to tell the story, having won a passel of awards for his investigate work.” Booklist called the book “gripping” and “hard to put down.” - See more at: http://deathatseaworld.com/?author=1#sthash.O2U5E43Y.dpuf
DAVID KIRBY is the author of 'Evidence of Harm,' which was a New York Times bestseller, winner of the 2005 Investigative Reporters and Editors (IRE) award for best book, and a finalist for the New York Public Library Helen Bernstein Award for Excellence in Journalism, and 'Animal Factory,' an acclaimed investigation into the environmental impact of factory farms which NPR compared to Upton Sinclair’s classic work 'The Jungle.' His latest book, 'Death at SeaWorld,' was previewed by Library Journal, which wrote: “Lives are at stake here, and Kirby can be trusted to tell the story, having won a passel of awards for his investigate work.” Booklist called the book “gripping” and “hard to put down.” - See more at: http://deathatseaworld.com/?author=1#sthash.O2U5E43Y.dpuf

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